From sparse matrices to VEX/OpenCl
Over the last months I had some conversations about the need of using (sparse) matrices and/or matrix solvers in Houdini to implement various fundamental algorithms for geometry processing, such as the Poisson Equation. Of course, most of the time we definitely want to work with matrices because everything is easier to understand, faster to set up, and also faster to solve. Nevertheless, I think it’s important to know, that even if that’s the prefered method, it’s not the only one. This becomes particularly apparent when working with Houdini because it doesn’t get shipped with Scipy or any other easy-to-use sparse matrix library. So, as long as we don’t want to compile Scipy by our own, we’re stuck with either using Numpy (which doesn’t support sparse matrices) or using the HDK.
However, the good thing is that if we don’t want to, we do not have to use matrices at all. In other words, if we don’t have access to Scipy and don’t want to use the HDK, pretty much all of it can also be done in VEX and/or OpenCl. It will be slower and most probably less accurate but it works by only using standard SOPs without the need of external dependencies such as Scipy, EIGEN, …
About two years ago I wrote a little blog post about various algorithms how to compute geodesic distance fields on meshes. Nowadays we can simply use surfacedist() but back in 2017 you had to code it by yourself. And of course, if someone is talking about geodesics, there is no way of getting around Keenan Cranes wunderful paper “The Heat Method for Distance Computation”. So, what would be a better example than an implementation of exactly this paper!?
I won’t go into details about the method described in the paper since everybody should read it but it works by basically solving the heat, as well as the Poisson equation. Both are typically set up and solved as a linear system in matrix form and that’s also what I did for my “Geodesics on Meshes” Blog entry. This time, however, we are going to do it differently and use only standard SOPs together with a bit of VEX and OpenCl.
So, below is the file with two slightly different methods. Example one is simply using Jacobi iteration to solve the heat and Poisson equation and example two is relying on Successive Over-Relaxation to speed up convergence time (if Jacobi takes n iterations, SOR convergence in approx. sqrt(n) iterations depending on the relaxation factor). Additionally for reference and/or performance comparison there’s also an example which uses sparse matrices in EIGEN together with the HDK and another one which uses Scipy. To run the HDK example you’ll need a working compiler since it’s implemented by using inlinecpp() and for the Scipy example, well, you’ll need Scipy.
K. Crane, C. Weischedel, M. Wardetzky: The Heat Method for Distance Computation